Police violence as a reproductive justice issue

Bioethics in the News purple and teal icon

This post is a part of our Bioethics in the News series

By LeConté J. Dill, DrPH, MPH

In July 2017, Sacramento police officers raided Zityrua Abraham’s apartment during a no-knock warrant, and threw her to the ground, where she landed on her stomach. Ms. Abraham was eight months pregnant, and her one-year-old son was inside of the house. Furthermore, the police officers were at the wrong house. In May 2019, Phoenix police officers pointed guns at Dravon Ames, his pregnant fiancée, Iesha Harper, and their two young daughters, ages four and one, after their four-year-old accidentally took a doll from a Family Dollar store. Although Ms. Abraham, Ms. Harper, their unborn babies and their families “survived” their police encounters and were not murdered, we must also consider and more rigorously document the impacts of police violence on pregnant and parenting “survivors” and other witnesses.

How does police violence impact people’s reproductive decisions?

After the murder of Michael Brown in 2014 by police in Ferguson, Missouri, Imani Gandy, Rewire Senior Editor of Law and Policy, tweeted “I saw so many people on Twitter saying “I don’t want to have/raise Black children in this country.” That is a reproductive justice issue.” Since then, the intersections of police violence and reproductive justice have received more attention in the popular press. “Reproductive justice,” first coined in 1994 by a group of Black women, has spurned into a movement that supports “the human right to maintain personal bodily autonomy, have children, not have children, and parent the children we have in safe and sustainable communities.” The U.S. does not foster “safe and sustainable communities” particularly for Black, Indigenous, and other people of color, and that lack of safety is perpetuated through disproportionate and excessive surveillance, policing, and punishment by law enforcement. Black people have flocked to social media to vent about how even the fear of police violence threatens their reproductive and parenting decisions. Writer and journalist Hannah Giorgis has remarked that “Any force that systematically and unapologetically turns unconsenting Black wombs into graveyards is a reproductive justice issue.”

Photo of a black child with their head and hand resting on the exposed pregnant belly of their parent.
Image description: a young Black child is lovingly resting their hand and head on the exposed pregnant belly of their parent, who is standing with their arm around their child. Image source: Anna Carolina Vieira Santos/Flickr Creative Commons.

How do pregnant people experience police violence?

In 2020, the state-sanctioned murders of Breonna Taylor, George Floyd, Tony McDade and other Black people raised the public consciousness of an all too pernicious, long cycle of racist state-sanctioned violence in the United States. Ongoing advocacy and activism efforts were bolstered, calling for decreased use of force by officers, demilitarization of law enforcement, divestment of police department funding and redistribution to social services, and abolition. Nevertheless, since the summer of 2020, law enforcement has continued to disproportionately harm Black people, including assaulting and arresting pregnant Black women. In a recent study, Dr. Rachel Hardeman and colleagues found an 83% increase in the odds of preterm birth among those who reside in neighborhoods with high levels of police exposure, contact, and activity relative to those in low police exposure neighborhoods. After Zityrua Abraham’s assault mentioned earlier, she was in physical pain and her pregnancy became high risk. Although Ms. Abraham’s contact with police did not end in her murder, such exposure to law enforcement and their technologies of surveillance is still violent—physically, mentally, and emotionally. This is a type of “slow death”—a cumulative trauma borne out of the daily round of living, and in this case, living while Black.

Bearing witness

It is also critical to acknowledge and address the mental, emotional, and physical ramifications of witnessing police violence. Darnella Frazier was 17-years-old when she filmed George Floyd being murdered by Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin. This footage helped to galvanize worldwide protests against police violence and became primary evidence in the conviction of Chauvin. Frazier has talked openly on social media and in news stories about the chronic post-traumatic stress that she has experienced from bearing witness to Floyd’s murder by police. Additionally, her then-nine-year-old cousin also witnessed the murder. Similarly, the children and other young family members of Korryn Gaines, Atatiana Jefferson, Philando Castile, and Jacob Blake witnessed or were in close proximity to the murders of their loved ones by law enforcement. Dr. Rhea Boyd’s research and advocacy acknowledges this, and she notes the glaring absence in the research literature of the impacts of young people who have witnessed their family members murdered by law enforcement. Ultimately, we must ask what are the consequences of witness and of survival; what coping practices exist and persist amidst chronic trauma; and will we ever be able to reproduce justice?

Photo of LeConté Dill

LeConté Dill, DrPH, MPH, is an Associate Professor in the Department of African American and African Studies at Michigan State University. In her work as a community-accountable scholar, educator, and poet, she listens to and shows up for urban Black girls and works to rigorously document their experiences of safety, resilience, resistance, and wellness.

Join the discussion! Your comments and responses to this commentary are welcomed. The author will respond to all comments made by Wednesday, November 24, 2021. With your participation, we hope to create discussions rich with insights from diverse perspectives.

You must provide your name and email address to leave a comment. Your email address will not be made public.


  1. Black Women for Reproductive Justice. (n.d.). RJ Founding Mothers. Retrieved November 1, 2021, from https://bwrj.wordpress.com/category/rj-founding-mothers/.
  2. Brown, S. L. (2014, August 10). When Parenting Feels Like a Fool’s Errand: On the Death of Michael Brown. Stacia L. Brown. https://stacialbrown.com/2014/08/10/when-parenting-feels-like-a-fools-errand-on-the-death-of-michael-brown/.
  3. Boyd, R. (2020, August 29). Jacob Blake’s police shooting highlights the hidden victims of police violence. NBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/think/opinion/jacob-blake-s-police-shooting-highlights-hidden-victims-police-violence-ncna1238574.
  4. ‘Don’t do this please’: Emotional arrest of woman in Pearland caught on video. (2021, September 22). KHOU11. https://www.khou.com/article/news/local/pearland-police-arrest-video-deon-ledet-sister/285-b0378222-1008-4e7a-a3a2-5ddb37620daa.
  5. Gandy, I. [@AngryBlackLady](2014, August 10). I saw so many people on Twitter saying “I don’t want to have/raise black children in this country.” That is a reproductive justice issue. [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/AngryBlackLady/status/498508044796309505.
  6. Giorgis, H. (2014, August 13). The Soapbox: Why We Cannot Have Reproductive Justice Without Fighting Police Brutality. The Frisky. https://thefrisky.com/the-soapbox-why-we-cannot-have-reproductive-justice-without-fighting-police-brutality/.
  7. Hardeman, R., Chantarat, T., & Karbeah, J. (2020). Police exposure as a determinant of structural racism: an exploration of the association between preterm birth in neighborhoods with high police exposure. Health Services Research55(S1), 50. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.13396.
  8. McClain, D. (2014, August 13). The Murder of Black Youth Is a Reproductive Justice Issue. The Nation. https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/murder-black-youth-reproductive-justice-issue/.
  9. Sharma, V. (2021, May 26). Darnella Frazier, Teen Who Filmed George Floyd’s Murder, Speaks Out About Her Trauma. Teen Vogue. https://www.teenvogue.com/story/teen-recorded-george-floyd-murder-statement.
  10. Singhvi, S & Pandey, I. (2021, October 21). Demilitarize the Police. Brennan Center for Justice. https://www.brennancenter.org/our-work/analysis-opinion/demilitarize-police.
  11. SisterSong Women of Color Reproductive Justice Collective (n.d.). Reproductive Justice. Retrieved November 1, 2021, from https://www.sistersong.net/reproductive-justice.
  12. Smith, C. A. (2016, July 11). Slow death: Is the trauma of police violence killing black women? The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/slow-death-is-the-trauma-of-police-violence-killing-black-women-62264.
  13. Tonsall, S. (2017, July 10). Pregnant Woman Says Sacramento Police Officers Threw Her to the Ground While Searching for Suspect. Fox40. https://fox40.com/news/local-news/pregnant-woman-says-sacramento-police-officers-threw-her-to-the-ground-while-searching-for-suspect/.
  14. Toropin, K. & Johnson, L. M. (2020, October 8). Footage of a Kansas City officer kneeling on the back of a pregnant Black woman sparks ongoing protest. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/08/us/protest-arrest-of-pregnant-woman-kansas-city-trnd/index.html.
  15. Transform Harm. (n.d.). Abolition. Retrieved November 5, 2021, from https://transformharm.org/abolition/.
  16. Vera Institute of Justice. (2020). Ending Police Violence: What Do Defund and Divest Mean? https://www.vera.org/downloads/publications/ending-police-violence-what-do-defund-and-divest-mean.pdf.
  17. What we know about the Phoenix police encounter with Dravon Ames and his family. (2019, June 17). AZ Central. https://www.azcentral.com/story/news/local/phoenix/2019/06/17/what-we-know-phoenix-polices-response-shoplifting-incident/1476291001/.