Bioethics for Breakfast: Mental Health Care Access: Making the Dollars and “Common Sense” Case for Parity

Bioethics for Breakfast Seminars in Medicine, Law and Society

Malkia Newman, Anti-Stigma Team Supervisor at CNS Healthcare, and Dr. Debra A. Pinals of MDHHS and the University of Michigan presented at the Feb. 25 Bioethics for Breakfast session, offering perspectives and insight on the topic “Mental Health Care Access: Making the Dollars and “Common Sense” Case for Parity.” Bioethics for Breakfast is generously sponsored by Hall, Render, Killian, Heath & Lyman.

People with mental health disabilities face disproportionately high rates of poverty, housing and employment discrimination, and criminalization. The upheaval caused by the coronavirus outbreak has exacerbated these disparities for those disabled prior to the crisis, while exposing more people to trauma, loss, and uncertainty. Considering mental health care from a justice and equity perspective, this session examined the following: 1) What social and ethical challenges are embedded in the current mental health epidemic? 2) How might such challenges be effectively addressed? 3) What community-based models can improve access? 4) What are the cost benefits of equitable treatment vs. cost of untreated mental healthcare in the U.S.?

Malkia Newman addressed the first question above on the social and ethical challenges embedded in the current mental health epidemic. Through sharing her personal life story, Ms. Newman focused on trauma, stigma, and disparities in behavioral healthcare. Ms. Newman defined types of trauma, focusing on inter-generational trauma. She noted that racism and social inequities are now regarded by many as a health crisis, especially in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Stigma that individuals face can include many layers, and that stigma can exacerbate mental health and substance use disorders. With regard to mental health disparities, she shared that access to mental health care is only one piece—quality treatment, addressing the shortage of qualified providers, and the need for equitable funding of treatment for all individuals is also crucial. Many in the U.S. are facing financial insecurity, which can also exacerbate mental illness and be a barrier to accessing treatment. Bringing forth the idea of resilience, Ms. Newman ended by sharing her hope for the future, that “resilience can spring forth, and resilience can be taught.”

Dr. Debra A. Pinals provided a physician and policymaker perspective, first addressing the question: why is mental health relegated to second tier status in healthcare financing? There is a long history of viewing mental illness, including substance use disorders, as not being “real” illness—blame, stigma, and stereotypes still play a part in this attitude. Stigma “allows the discrimination of someone based on a label.” However, it is very important to understand that these are illnesses that have causes and treatments. COVID-19 may be putting more focus on mental health, and that may be one positive thing to come from the pandemic. What community-based models can improve access? Dr. Pinals discussed the problems with the current crisis system and the involvement of law enforcement when responding to a crisis, and then put forth a new model that would involve a behavioral health response, specially-trained law enforcement as a backup, and many other pieces related to community services and supports. Referencing her paper on crisis services, Dr. Pinals shared that improving access has to be accessible, interconnected, effective, and just. Dr. Pinals also discussed building out Certified Community Behavioral Health Clinics (CCBHCs) in Michigan, and the siloed nature of current services. Dr. Pinals emphasized the need to understand the existing disparities in mental health services, also discussing the prison system, the opioid epidemic, and child welfare impacts.

During the discussion portion, both speakers discussed the need to make space for people’s stories, particularly within the context of policy work. Ms. Newman shared the importance of including both behavioral health professionals and individuals with mental illness during the planning process for policies and programs, such that their input is actively included. Further discussion touched on teletherapy access and programs for youth and families.

Related Resources

About the Speakers

Malkia Newman
Malkia Newman is Anti-Stigma Team Supervisor at CNS Healthcare. Behavioral health conditions are common in Malkia’s family. Suicidal, unemployed, and homeless, Malkia accessed care at CNS Healthcare in 2004. Once stabilized, she was able to pursue a job with the CNS Healthcare Anti-Stigma Program in 2005. The Peer-Led program challenges stigma and provides community education on a number of different behavioral health topics. Using poetry, singing and other creative expressions, Malkia shows that “hope and recovery is possible.” The program has reached over 100,000 people in Detroit, Lansing, Marquette, MI; Washington, D.C., New York City, Houston, San Antonio, Las Vegas, Chicago, Phoenix, Honolulu, Hawaii, and Nova Scotia, Canada.

Debra A. Pinals, MD
Debra A. Pinals, MD, is the Medical Director of Behavioral Health and Forensic Programs for the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, Director of the Program in Psychiatry, Law, & Ethics, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Michigan Medical School, and Clinical Adjunct Professor at the University of Michigan Law School. Dr. Pinals’ roles have included serving as the Assistant Commissioner of Forensic Services as well as the Interim State Medical Director for the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health. She has worked in outpatient and inpatient settings, forensic and correctional facilities, emergency rooms and court clinics, has received public service awards, and has been an expert witness in many cases. She is Board Certified in Psychiatry, Forensic Psychiatry, and Addiction Medicine.

About Bioethics for Breakfast:
In 2010, Hall, Render, Killian, Heath & Lyman invited the Center for Ethics to partner on a bioethics seminar series. The Center for Ethics and Hall Render invite guests from the health professions, religious and community organizations, political circles, and the academy to engage in lively discussions of topics spanning the worlds of bioethics, health law, business, and policy. For each event, the Center selects from a wide range of controversial issues and provides two presenters either from our own faculty or invited guests, who offer distinctive, and sometimes clashing, perspectives. Those brief presentations are followed by a moderated open discussion.

How might lack of access impact maternity care options for rural women in Michigan?

Bioethics Public Seminar Series purple and teal icon

The Center for Ethics and Humanities in the Life Sciences is excited to announce the first event of the 2020-2021 Bioethics Public Seminar Series (formerly the Bioethics Brownbag & Webinar Series). You are invited to join us virtually – events will not take place in person. Our seminars are free to attend and open to all individuals.

Maternity Care Deserts in Rural Michigan

Andrea Wendling photo
Andrea Wendling, MD

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Zoom registration: bit.ly/bioethics-wendling

U.S. physician shortages affect rural healthcare access, including access to maternity care. OB deserts, which are geographical high-risk areas for care delivery, exist in the Upper Peninsula and northeast Lower Peninsula of Michigan. How might lack of access impact maternity care options for rural women in our state? Dr. Wendling will present recent work that identified and characterized access points for prenatal and delivery care in Michigan’s rural counties and explored access to Trial of Labor After Cesarean (TOLAC) services for rural Michigan women. We will discuss how lack of access may impact maternity care choices for rural women and will strategize ways to address this issue.

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Join us for Dr. Wendling’s online lecture on Wednesday, September 23, 2020 from noon until 1 pm ET.

Andrea Wendling, MD, is a Professor of Family Medicine and Director of the Rural Medicine Curriculum for Michigan State University’s College of Human Medicine. She has received the Rural Professional of the Year Award from the Michigan Center for Rural Health and was named the Outstanding Educator of the Year by the National Rural Health Association in 2020. Dr. Wendling is Assistant Editor for the Family Medicine journal and a founding Associate Editor of Peer-Reviewed Reports in Medical Education and Research (PRIMER). She participates on rural workforce research groups for the National Rural Health Association (NRHA) and Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and has presented and published in the areas of medical education and the rural health workforce. Dr. Wendling is a family physician in rural Northern Michigan.

Can’t make it? All webinars are recorded! Visit our archive of recorded lecturesTo receive reminders before each webinar, please subscribe to our mailing list.

A Reasonable and Virtuous Response to a Pandemic

Bioethics in the News logoThis post is a part of our Bioethics in the News series

By Larissa Fluegel, MD, MHS

Within five days of the first two registered cases here in Michigan, social media traffic about COVID-19 visibly ramped up, with a significant amount of COVID-19-related posts on my news feeds. This was the same for my friends. People were posting photos of entire local store aisles almost empty. I went to the store and to my astonishment, checkout lanes had long lines of individuals with carts filled with toilet paper, water, and hand sanitizer. Every single cart looked the same. I thought, what is happening? The apocalypse? Where have the virtues of altruism and selflessness gone? Anyway, this blog is not about toilet paper or human responses to fear, but about the question of what is safe, appropriate, and virtuous to do at the individual level, all things considered.

no-toilet-paper-flickr-raed-mansour
Image description: Empty shelves that normally contain toilet paper in a Walgreens store, shared on March 13, 2020. Image source: Raed Mansour/Flickr Creative Commons.

What we know.

  • This is a new virus. The fact that it is new means that humans lack the immunity to mount a quick and sufficiently strong response to clear the virus before it causes disease.
  • Based on all 72,314 cases in the Chinese population, most (80.9%) are ‘mild’ respiratory flu-like (but also gastrointestinal); 4.7% turn critical and 2% are fatal.
  • Severity and risk of death increase with age and with pre-existing conditions.
  • There is a two to fourteen-day incubation time (this is the period of time from when the virus first enters one’s body and the time one shows symptoms).
  • Mild soap and water used as recommended are highly effective in eliminating the virus.
  • There is no effective treatment or vaccine against the virus yet.
  • Michigan’s Governor declared a state of emergency on March 10 and mandated all Michiganders to stay home as of March 23. This state of emergency declaration is not intended to cause panic, but instead is to allow the State to quickly deploy resources to support local responses in combatting the spread. This also is done to avoid overwhelming the healthcare system, where patients are being treated in hospital hallways, cared for by exhausted healthcare workers who might be pressed to decide which patients warrant oxygen assistance and which die.

Why do we want to stop the spread?

What we really hope to achieve is to flatten the curve of the spread. The goal is to decrease the rate of infection so that too many people don’t get sick at the same time, going beyond our current health care system’s capacity to safely and effectively treat. By doing so, we protect our fellow citizens. How? By preserving access to necessary medical resources.

What do these things mean to us?

We should understand that eventually we might all get sick. We must not make decisions based on fear. We instead should make decisions based on what we know about the virus and its spread, i.e., the facts and recommendations from reputable health authorities like the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) who are carefully monitoring and studying the situation, while avoiding unsupported advice appearing on social media. This is ethical, responsible, and virtuous behavior.

When public health officials strongly recommend that we stay home, we follow their recommendations to the best of our ability because this helps save lives. Remember the issue is no longer about us individually but about us as a community and a nation:

“…[T]o prevent the state’s health care system from being overwhelmed, to allow time for the production of critical test kits, ventilators, and personal protective equipment, and to avoid needless deaths, it is reasonable and necessary to direct residents to remain at home or in their place of residence to the maximum extent feasible.” -The Office of Governor Gretchen Whitmer, Executive Order 2020-21 (COVID-19)

When public health officials strongly recommend that we immediately practice appropriate social distancing, we do that. What this means is that whenever we are able to do so, we should anticipate and avoid places where we cannot be at least 6 feet from another person—except, of course, family members who we live with. If you work in an industry that requires you to show up, do not fret. If the rest of us altruistically do what we can, you should also be okay. If you have a friend or relative who may be at increased risk because of a prior condition, stay away from them—again, let us take care of each other.

But be mindful that social distancing does not mean social isolation. We can and should stay connected through technology that enables us to reach out and connect. This is also good for our emotional and mental health.

Of course, we must not forget to practice respiratory and hand washing etiquette, washing our hands the right way, with soap and running water, when:

  1. You arrive at your location (if leaving home is necessary) and when you return home.
  2. Before and after handling food.
  3. After toileting.

None of these cautions and behavioral virtues suggest that it is necessary to freak out and purchase all the available toilet paper or hand sanitizer. All indications are that food and basic necessities will continue to be available. It does not mean to be obsessively and compulsively spraying disinfectant on every surface of your home multiple times a day, every day. If we practice social distancing or stay home where mandated and practice appropriate hand washing and respiratory etiquette, this is not necessary.

Times like this call for bolstering virtuous behavior. Do what we are told for the sake of all. Do what we can to reconnect with our families and our local community. Do remember those in need. We can go out for a walk or a run or a hike. With appropriate distance these are all okay.

The bottom line is that it is appropriate and virtuous to calmly and sensibly take measures to slow the spread, following guidelines from valid sources while taking care of each other… keeping our distance but keeping in touch.

fluegel-larissa-blogLarissa Fluegel, MD, MHS, is an Adjunct Assistant Professor with the Center for Ethics and Humanities in the Life Sciences and the College of Human Medicine at Michigan State University where she teaches bioethics and the social context of clinical decisions. Her academic interests include the integration of bioethics, social determinants of health, shared decision-making, and health policy into medical education.

Join the discussion! Your comments and responses to this commentary are welcomed. The author will respond to all comments made by Thursday, April 9, 2020. With your participation, we hope to create discussions rich with insights from diverse perspectives.

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Bioethics for Breakfast: Can Pharmaceutical Cost Control Be Achieved Ethically with Surgical Precision?

Bioethics for Breakfast Seminars in Medicine, Law and SocietyPaula Cunningham and Craig Hunter presented at the February 6th Bioethics for Breakfast event, offering perspectives and insight on the topic “Health Reform: Can Pharmaceutical Cost Control Be Achieved Ethically with Surgical Precision?”

This year’s Bioethics for Breakfast series is focused on a central theme: “Is There a Cure for Our Sick Health Care System?” The series is generously sponsored by Hall, Render, Killian, Heath & Lyman.

There is virtually unanimous agreement among health policy analysts that something must be done to control health care costs, especially pharmaceutical costs, which are often a major burden for the elderly. Consumers and taxpayers are also demanding that health care costs be controlled and reduced, most often with regard to drugs. This is why the recent focus has been on the price of drugs. However, any practical proposal to reduce drug health care costs has been denounced as rationing and/or as a threat to medical innovation. The result has been political inertia and economic exuberance (for for-profit health care corporations), with $3.8 trillion in U.S. health spending in 2019 and projections of $6.0 trillion total health spending for 2027. What forms of drug-related health care cost control are you willing to accept for yourself and those you care about? What do you see as the ethical challenges that must be addressed by any effort to control such health care costs, especially for the elderly?

Speaker Paula Cunningham, State Director of AARP Michigan, highlighted the struggles that people in Michigan face regarding the price of prescription drugs, noting that some individuals travel to Canada because the cost there is drastically lower. Cunningham shared the AARP “Stop Rx Greed” campaign as an example of their advocacy work in this area. She also noted that there are several pieces of legislation being worked on in Michigan and at the national level, such as an importation bill, that would reduce prescription drug costs. She finally stressed that this issue is not just about data and facts, it is about people’s lives.

Speaker Craig Hunter, Director of Specialty Program Outcomes and Analytics for CVS Health, brought industry expertise to the discussion and provided an economic perspective on the issue. He shared three main points, the first being that we need to rethink the question “can medical outcomes be achieved ethically with surgical precision?” because economic structures in the U.S. are not set up in a way that drives synergy. Hunter then discussed the need for structural changes to encourage creative solutions. When asking those in attendance if they believed that drugs in the U.S. are a public good, a minority responded in agreement. Hunter pointed out that this question has been answered very differently in other countries. Finally, Hunter noted that, regardless of “right or wrong,” the market is responding to its own stimulus; the business has been incentivised for certain outcomes.

Attendee questions and comments came from a variety of perspectives, including physicians, legislative staff, and community leaders. There was discussion of direct-to-consumer advertising, drug patents, and the barriers that exist for the consumer within this complex system.

About the Speakers

Paula Cunningham
Paula Cunningham, MLIR, is State Director of AARP Michigan, which has more than 1.4 million members. She is former President of Lansing Community College, and in the business community was CEO of Capitol National Bank. She serves on numerous boards, including, but not limited to, Davenport University and McLaren Health Systems-Lansing. Paula is in the Michigan Women’s Hall of Fame and was the first African American woman in the country to be president of a majority owned bank.

Craig Hunter
Craig Hunter is the Director of Specialty Program Outcomes and Analytics for CVS Health, providing leadership and oversight for outcomes-based financial reconciliations negotiated across specialty drug and patient management products. Previously Craig worked at Eli Lilly, first as the Lead Outcomes Scientist for the U.S. Alzheimer’s and Oncology franchises, and later leading U.S. Outcomes Customer Engagement. Additional previous experience includes time consulting as well as Primary Investigator for a USAID-funded project examining the intersection of traditional and western medicine in South Africa. Craig earned his MPP from the University of Chicago and a BA in Communications (Rhetoric)/Political Science from Furman University.

About Bioethics for Breakfast:
In 2010, Hall, Render, Killian, Heath & Lyman invited the Center for Ethics to partner on a bioethics seminar series. The Center for Ethics and Hall Render invite guests from the health professions, religious and community organizations, political circles, and the academy to engage in lively discussions of topics spanning the worlds of bioethics, health law, business, and policy. For each event, the Center selects from a wide range of controversial issues and provides two presenters either from our own faculty or invited guests, who offer distinctive, and sometimes clashing, perspectives. Those brief presentations are followed by a moderated open discussion.

Bioethics for Breakfast: Our Sick Health Care System: What’s the Differential Diagnosis?

Bioethics for Breakfast Seminars in Medicine, Law and SocietyLaura Appel and Marti Lolli presented at the December 5th Bioethics for Breakfast event, offering perspectives and insight on the topic “Our Sick Health Care System: What’s the Differential Diagnosis?”

This year’s Bioethics for Breakfast series centers on the theme “Is There a Cure for Our Sick Health Care System?” The series is generously sponsored by Hall, Render, Killian, Heath & Lyman.

Our health care system is exhibiting multiple symptoms of serious illness. Treating symptoms is rarely a good idea. What we need is a differential diagnosis. What are the root causes for skyrocketing costs, increasing access barriers, physician burnout, patient non-adherence and dis-satisfaction, failed therapies, and so on? Too many greedy profit-takers? Too many stingy insurers? Too much administrative bureaucracy? Too much competition? Too little competition? Too much unhealthy behavior by patients? Too little time for patients? Too much technology? Large empathy deficits? Too little prevention? Too many medical specialists? Too few primary care physicians? Not enough evidence-based medicine? Too much waste and inefficiency? Too many hospital mergers? Too fragmented a financing system? Patients demanding too much care? Unregulated drug prices? Too many special interests shaping health care policy?

Addressing these questions, Priority Health’s Marti Lolli first emphasized that these challenges are complex and cannot be simplified. She posited that there is enough money in the system—collectively we must get creative. In “diagnosing” our health care system, she put forward three items: 1) radically overhaul the fee-for-service system, 2) move away from the “one size fits all” health care model, and 3) accept data, technology, and transparency.

Michigan Health & Hospital Association’s Laura Appel then shared her perspective. Her three-item “diagnosis” began with the first point that there is a focus on health care when the underlying problem is health. One example she gave was that kidney disease in Michigan cost Medicaid $1 billion, stating, “We cannot change the output if we don’t change the input.” Her second item was that we don’t really have a “system,” also discussing the need for more behavioral health resources. Her third item focused on evidence, and that overall, to have a “system,” the system needs to respond to the evidence, recognizing what needs to change.

 
Attendee questions and comments addressed a variety of topics, including caregiver education, advance care planning, evidence-based medicine in practice, and social and structural determinants of health. Finally, one overarching point that those in attendance seemed to agree on: change is hard.

Marti Lolli Laura Appel and Leonard Fleck speaking to audience
Image description: pictured left to right are Marti Lolli, Laura Appel, and Leonard Fleck during the question and answers portion of Bioethics for Breakfast on December 5. Image source: Liz McDaniel/Center for Ethics.

About the Speakers

Laura Appel
Laura Appel is senior vice president and chief innovation officer at the Michigan Health & Hospital Association. She focuses on healthcare policy, hospital finance, legislation and governance. At the federal level, she represents the interests of Michigan hospitals and health systems in both the legislative and regulatory arenas on key issues, including federal healthcare reform and Medicare. She is an expert in auto insurance and legislative policy and has a proven ability to influence legislation and healthcare policy through her understanding of the issues, educating influencers and policymakers, and introducing fresh ideas.

Marti Lolli, MBA
Marti Lolli is chief marketing officer and senior vice president of consumer and government markets at Priority Health, a nationally recognized health plan. She oversees the individual market, Medicare advantage and Medicaid markets, and market intelligence. She also oversees all marketing, digital strategy, communications and customer experience at Priority Health. Her areas of expertise include consumerism in health care, market trends in health care, competitive and consumer analytics, health care reform, health care innovation and strategic planning.

About Bioethics for Breakfast:
In 2010, Hall, Render, Killian, Heath & Lyman invited the Center for Ethics to partner on a bioethics seminar series. The Center for Ethics and Hall Render invite guests from the health professions, religious and community organizations, political circles, and the academy to engage in lively discussions of topics spanning the worlds of bioethics, health law, business, and policy. For each event, the Center selects from a wide range of controversial issues and provides two presenters either from our own faculty or invited guests, who offer distinctive, and sometimes clashing, perspectives. Those brief presentations are followed by a moderated open discussion.

Bioethics for Breakfast: Fitness, Frailty, and the Challenges of Successful Aging

Bioethics for Breakfast Seminars in Medicine, Law and SocietyFrancis Komara, DO, and Scott Wamsley presented at the April 25th Bioethics for Breakfast event, offering perspectives and insight on the topic “Fitness, Frailty, and the Challenges of Successful Aging.”

In very concrete terms, what should “healthy aging” mean when we wish to be a just and caring society? We start from these facts: (1) the size of the elderly and hyper-elderly population in Michigan and nationwide is growing rapidly; (2) costly health needs are much more common among the elderly than among the non-elderly; (3) if we are completely responsive to the health needs of the elderly, will we unfairly shortchange the health needs of the non-elderly?; (4) there are great disparities among the health needs of the elderly themselves (so what do we need to do to correct that initial state of affairs?); (5) are family caregivers excessively burdened by things as they are—what can we do socially that is affordable to relieve those burdens?

How does “aging in place” work, given the five challenges listed above, especially for those elderly who are in near poverty conditions? This Bioethics for Breakfast explored these and other questions.

Francis Komara, DO
Dr. Francis Komara is a Professor in the Department of Family and Community Medicine (FCM) and Director of the Geriatric Fellowship Program in the Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine. Dr. Komara is a geriatrician who formerly practiced at the FCM clinic at MSU, and was formerly medical director of the Medical Care Facility and Rehabilitation Services of Ingham County, and medical director of McLaren Visiting Nurse & Hospice. Dr. Komara received his medical degree from the Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine.

Scott Wamsley
Scott Wamsley is Deputy Director of the Aging & Adult Services Agency in the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. Mr. Wamsley has more than twenty years of experience in the field of aging services. He holds a master’s degree in public administration and a bachelor’s degree in political science from Eastern Michigan University.

About Bioethics for Breakfast:
In 2010, Hall, Render, Killian, Heath & Lyman invited the Center for Ethics to partner on a bioethics seminar series. The Center for Ethics and Hall Render invite guests from the health professions, religious and community organizations, political circles, and the academy to engage in lively discussions of topics spanning the worlds of bioethics, health law, business, and policy. For each event, the Center selects from a wide range of controversial issues and provides two presenters either from our own faculty or invited guests, who offer distinctive, and sometimes clashing, perspectives. Those brief presentations are followed by a moderated open discussion.

Bioethics for Breakfast: Addressing Maternal Mortality in the Childbearing Year

Bioethics for Breakfast Seminars in Medicine, Law and SocietyEvery woman who dies during or after pregnancy has a story to tell, a story that can teach us how to prevent other maternal deaths.

Renée Canady, PhD, MPA, and Cheryl Larry-Osman, RN, MS, CNM, presented at the February 21st Bioethics for Breakfast event, offering perspectives and insight on the topic “Just Caring for All Michigan Mothers: Addressing Maternal Mortality in the Childbearing Year.” Drawing from the 2018 Michigan Maternal Mortality Surveillance report, the speakers reminded the audience that “every woman who dies during or after pregnancy has a story to tell, a story that can teach us how to prevent other maternal deaths.” The presenters introduced the session with compelling personal experiences, illustrating the scope and scale of the problem. Using an ethics yardstick Dr. Canady then invited the 33-member audience to respond to graphic depictions of the U.S. maternal mortality death rate – the highest rate within the developed world. Those numbers give evidence of a profound social injustice and a need to modify resource allocation accordingly.

Yet as in much of the U.S., evidence suggests that Michigan has not met the mark. As the speakers noted, race matters – a lot. From 2011-2015 Black women in Michigan were found to be three times more likely than white women to die of a pregnancy-related cause; upon review nearly half (44%) were considered preventable. Black mothers in Michigan were twice as likely to die from a pregnancy-associated cause; upon review, 39% were deemed preventable. Social and medical advances have disproportionately failed to address pregnancy needs for Black mothers. Sociodemographic variables do not fully explain the observed gap – the disparities are rooted in multilevel (system, practitioner, patient) inequalities including place, communication, and discrimination. A health equity approach recognizes that one must comprehensively address institutional racism, class oppression, and exploitative gender discrimination.

As a just and caring society we have an obligation to ensure safe and healthy pregnancy and birth experiences for all mothers. Ms. Larry-Osman noted that a virtue ethics approach leans on the character of health professionals to engage compassion, reason and discipline in the interest of maternal well-being. In concert, a communitarian ethics approach emphasizes shared values, ideals and goals to identify barriers to care as well as interventions and solutions. As reported by attendee Lynette Biery, Maternal Child Health Director at the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, maternal mortality reviews such as the Michigan Maternal Mortality Surveillance Program provide data necessary to address changes that would improve women’s health before, during and after pregnancy. Michigan has seen some improvement after the 2016 implementation of hemorrhage and hypertension “safety bundles” and the MI-AIM (Alliance for Innovation on Maternal Health) is now working on opioid bundles as well. But given the scale of the problem, are such efforts enough?

Approximately 50% of Michigan women rely on Medicaid for prenatal care and give birth in a Medicaid supported hospital, but that program is targeted for cuts under the current federal administration. What is the state/physician obligation to address this? Should the state ensure the availability of labor support “doulas” as part of standard maternity care as is being done in other states? Mortality reviews help, but are they sufficient to raise awareness and address the multilevel problems? What structural strategies might best pave the way for continuity of care and community care? How can solutions avoid racist calls for “personal responsibility for heath”? What are the effects of pervasive racism and how might the state best address them? Many in audience lingered past the session’s end to continue discussing these questions. Our thanks to health law firm Hall, Render, Killian, Heath & Lyman for generously supporting these important conversations.

Renée Canady
Renée Canady, PhD, MPA, is Chief Executive Officer of the Michigan Public Health Institute. She is a nationally recognized thought leader in health disparities and inequities, cultural competence, and social justice. She additionally is Assistant Professor in MSU’s Division of Public Health within the College of Human Medicine. In her scholarly work, she emphasizes the social context of mental and physical health, and the pregnancy experiences of African-American women.

Cheryl Larry-Osman
Cheryl Larry-Osman, RN, MS, CNM, is a Perinatal Clinical Nurse Specialist at Henry Ford Hospital (Detroit). She additionally is trained as a Healthcare Equity Ambassador for the hospital and serves as a cultural competency and healthcare equity expert within that system. She has over 18 years of experience in obstetrics and is a passionate advocate for the optimal and equitable care of women and children.

About Bioethics for Breakfast:
In 2010, Hall, Render, Killian, Heath & Lyman invited the Center for Ethics to partner on a bioethics seminar series. The Center for Ethics and Hall Render invite guests from the health professions, religious and community organizations, political circles, and the academy to engage in lively discussions of topics spanning the worlds of bioethics, health law, business, and policy. For each event, the Center selects from a wide range of controversial issues and provides two presenters either from our own faculty or invited guests, who offer distinctive, and sometimes clashing, perspectives. Those brief presentations are followed by a moderated open discussion.

Dr. Fleck facilitates ethics workshop at Michigan pediatrics conference

Leonard Fleck photoOn September 14, Center Professor and Acting Director Dr. Leonard Fleck and Dr. Kenneth Pituch, MD, ran an ethics workshop at the Michigan Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics (MIAAP) 68th Annual Conference. The workshop, “Ethical Challenges in the Care of Seriously Ill Children,” focused on two cases: a growth attenuation case, and a Trisomy-18 newborn case.

The growth attenuation case involved a 7-year-old boy with severe developmental delay related to a CMV infection in utero. Parents are middle-aged and “not in great health.” They requested growth attenuation hormone therapy so that they would be able to manage the care of their child for many more years. No one doubts that they are devoted parents. The relevant ethical considerations concerned the best interests of this child and parental rights to make medical decisions for their children. On the face of it, it looks like the parents are making this decision for their benefit, i.e., easier care management for this child. While this is true, as the discussion brought out, it is also the case that this would be in the best interest of the child as well. More specifically, this child will not be deprived of any life experiences as a result of growth attenuation because of his severe developmental delay. Hence, growth attenuation does not represent a harm to this child.

Dr. Fleck and Dr. Pituch’s other case involved a Trisomy-18 newborn. In the past these children had dismal prospects. Virtually all of them died before age one, most often because of cardiac anomalies. Today, complex surgeries can be done on these children, all of which are risky. Consequently, some of these children can survive into their twenties, though this will be with severe cognitive deficiencies. The ethical challenge for pediatricians is determining what sort of conversation to have with parents regarding treatment or non-treatment options. In the case discussed, this was complicated by the fact that a representative of a Trisomy-18 support group contacted these parents one day after the birth to “assure” them that they did not have to choose non-treatment. The problem with these support groups is that they tend to be excessively optimistic and do not know the medically relevant and ethically relevant details associated with prospects for a particular infant. This can complicate the conversation that a pediatrician must have with these parents, and can potentially sow the seeds of distrust. What would clearly be the ethically and practically wrong thing to do would be to tell these parents to pay no attention to these support groups. Overall, the discussion in this workshop was lively and thoughtful.

Bioethics for Breakfast: Health Care Consolidations: Good News, Bad News, Fake News?

Bioethics for Breakfast Seminars in Medicine, Law and SocietyJohn Goddeeris, PhD, and Michael Herbert presented at the Bioethics for Breakfast event on May 10, 2018, offering perspective and insight on the topic, “Health Care Consolidations: Good News, Bad News, Fake News?” Leonard Fleck, PhD, moderated this session.

At the national level as well as in our state, the macro-level restructuring of health care delivery is impacting physician-patient clinical encounters, clinics, hospitals and health systems. As the engaged moderator for this session, Dr. Fleck guided those in attendance in examining downstream consequences of such restructuring and consolidations by posing questions to the two presenters: Dr. John Goddeeris, Professor of Economics, and Michael Herbert, Chief Executive Officer for the MSU HealthTeam.

Dr. Fleck asked the presenters to respond to the following questions: What are the basic statistics regarding health care consolidation? How does consolidation affect medical practice (and the core values of medicine)? Are patients better off as a result of consolidation? Does consolidation save the health care system money? Alternatively, does it give more pricing power to the hospital industry (against insurers who wish to demand discounts of various sorts)? Does this process have any significant effects for rural health care? Does this process increase or decrease disparities in the health care system, i.e., access to needed care for those less well off?

John Goddeeris
John Goddeeris, PhD, is a Professor of Economics in the Department of Economics in the College of Social Science at Michigan State University. Dr. Goddeeris’ expertise includes economic issues in health care, including health insurance and government programs. His research has been published widely in journals in economics, medicine, public health, and health policy. Dr. Goddeeris is a nonresident fellow in the Health Policy Center at the Urban Institute.

Michael Herbert
Michael Herbert, Chief Executive Officer for the MSU HealthTeam, is a consultant dedicated to assisting Academic Medical Centers in organizational design and operations, including hospital and faculty group practice operations, as well as Medical School operations, leadership development, strategic plan design and implementation and government policy development. He has served in a variety of high-level medical school and health system leadership positions in Michigan as well as in many other states, and was the Associate Deputy Regional Director in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

About Bioethics for Breakfast:
In 2010, Hall, Render, Killian, Heath & Lyman invited the Center for Ethics to partner on a bioethics seminar series. The Center for Ethics and Hall Render invite guests from the health professions, religious and community organizations, political circles, and the academy to engage in lively discussions of topics spanning the worlds of bioethics, health law, business, and policy. For each event, the Center selects from a wide range of controversial issues and provides two presenters either from our own faculty or invited guests, who offer distinctive, and sometimes clashing, perspectives. Those brief presentations are followed by a moderated open discussion.

Bioethics for Breakfast: Medicaid Work Requirements: Blood, Sweat and Tears Too?

Bioethics for Breakfast Seminars in Medicine, Law and SocietyAdrianne Haggins, MD, presented at the Bioethics for Breakfast event on February 8, 2018, offering perspective and insight on the topic, “Medicaid Work Requirements: Blood, Sweat and Tears Too?” Leonard Fleck, PhD, moderated this session.

The Trump administration has proposed giving states permission to attach work requirements for Medicaid eligibility. So far, ten states are seeking that permission. Is this a good idea, either from an ethical perspective or a policy perspective? Our speaker, Dr. Adrianne Haggins, is part of a research team at the University of Michigan that evaluated the impact of Michigan’s Medical expansion on employment—as reported in JAMA Internal Medicine (Dec. 11, 2017)—as well as health, and healthcare utilization.

A researcher at Kaiser Health News has added, “States will have to figure out how to define the work requirement and alternative options, such as going to school or volunteering in some organizations; how to enforce the new rules; how to pay for new administrative costs; and how to handle the millions of enrollees likely to seek exemptions.” Dr. Haggins also discussed some of her own research regarding health disparities and emergency department utilization.

Audience participants questioned such things as the administrative costs associated with implementation as well as the value and accuracy of labeling individuals as able-bodied with its attendant underlying stigma of deserving/undeserving of medical care. It was noted that much of the national conversation is linked to racialized assumptions that those utilizing Medicaid benefits are largely persons of color. Finally, many audience members argued the point that all people unconditionally deserve access to health care and some observed how that point too often gets lost in the semantics.

Related Reading:

Adrianne Haggins, MD
Adrianne Haggins is a clinical assistant professor in emergency medicine at the University of Michigan Medical School, and alumnus of the MSU College of Human Medicine class of 2007. She is a member of a research team at the University of Michigan evaluating the impact of Michigan’s Medicaid expansion, the Healthy Michigan Plan, using a mixed-methods approach. This evaluation provides rich data on enrollee and health care provider experiences with the Michigan Medicaid program, as well as health care utilization. Dr. Haggins’ specific interests are related to examining the impact of health care reform on emergency department utilization.

About Bioethics for Breakfast:
In 2010, Hall, Render, Killian, Heath & Lyman invited the Center for Ethics to partner on a bioethics seminar series. The Center for Ethics and Hall Render invite guests from the health professions, religious and community organizations, political circles, and the academy to engage in lively discussions of topics spanning the worlds of bioethics, health law, business, and policy. For each event, the Center selects from a wide range of controversial issues and provides two presenters either from our own faculty or invited guests, who offer distinctive, and sometimes clashing, perspectives. Those brief presentations are followed by a moderated open discussion.